Arm wrestling is a sport involving two participants. Each places one arm on a surface with their elbows bent and touching the surface, and they grip each other's hand. The goal is to pin the other's arm onto the surface, the winner's arm over the loser's arm. In the early years different names were interchangeably used to describe the same sport: "skanderbeg", "arm turning", "arm twisting", "arm wrestling", "indian arm wrestling", "twisting wrists", "wrist turning", "wrist wrestling".Organized armwrestling tournaments started being held in the 1950s.
Various factors can play a part in one's success in arm wrestling. Technique and overall arm strength are the two greatest contributing factors to winning an arm wrestling match. Other factors such as the length of an arm wrestler's arm, his/her muscle and arm mass/density, hand grip size, wrist endurance and flexibility, reaction time, as well as countless other traits, can add to the advantages of one arm wrestler over another. It is sometimes used to prove who is stronger between two or more people. In competitive arm wrestling, as sanctioned by the United States Armwrestling Federation (USAF), arm wrestling is performed with both competitors standing up with their arms placed on a tournament arm wrestling table. Arm wrestling tournaments are also divided into weight classes as well as left and right-handed divisions. Furthermore, strict rules such as fouls given to penalties (such as the competitor's elbow leaving a matted area where the elbow is to remain at all times, or a false start), and trying to escape a possible arm pin by breaking the grip with the opponent may result in a loss at the table. Paraphrasing USAF rules, arm wrestlers must straighten their wrists without a time lapse of one minute during competition.
The World Armwrestling Federation (WAF) is the universally recognized global governing body of professional arm wrestling and comprises 80 member countries.
Some noted top arm wrestling competitors include John Brzenk (hailed as the greatest arm wrestler of all time),Alexey Voyevoda, Zaur Tskhadadze, Travis Bagent, Denis Cyplenkov, Andriy Pushkar, Oleg Zhokh, Tim Bresnan, Devon Larratt, Ion Oncescu, Neil Pickup, and Jerry Cadorette. Allen Fisher is of high acclaim, for he has won 26 world championships. He is one of the oldest multiple world champion title holders in the sport of arm wrestling at 55 years of age in the year 2011. Heidi Andersson is a female armwrestler from Sweden who has won eleven world championships between 1998 and 2014.
- stand-up armwrestling
- sit-down armwrestling
- stand-up wristwrestling
- sit-down wristwrestling
John Brzenk was known mostly for his array of techniques which change almost every time he engaged in competition, even with the same opponent within the same match. As of summer 2008, John Brzenk was ranked #1 in North America. Ron Bath is known for his use of the Top Roll technique which emphasizes a 'roll' of the wrist as he brings the opponent's wrist down. Devon Larratt is very well known for his endurance and tenacity. He uses a wide array of techniques during his matches, one of them being holding the first "hit" of his opponents and draining them out, and then counter attacking afterwards. He is the 2017 WAL (World Armwrestling League) Heavyweight champion left and right handed. Travis Bagent, like Brzenk, was known for his wide array of techniques, coupled with his massive strength and explosive style. Many of Bagent's matches have ended in seconds. Bagent was considered the best left-handed arm wrestler in the world and ranked second overall in North America, as of summer of 2008.
Other competitors such as Matt Girdner, Michael Selearis, Sean Madera, Marcio Barboza, Christian Binnie, and Anthony Macaluso are known for their reliance on strength, coupled with the hook technique, where the wrist turns into a hooked grip after the referee has started the match. "The hook" or "hooking" is any move derived from the inside system of arm wrestling. The second generic system or style of arm wrestling is known as outside arm wrestling "the top roll" or "top rolling", while the "triceps press", "shoulder pressing", or "shoulder rolling" is often described as the third generic system or style of arm wrestling. Certain arm wrestlers depend on the straps, such as Jason Vale, who won the 1997 Petaluma World Championships in the super heavy weight class at only 175 pounds using the strap technique.
Many arm wrestlers will have a signature style or favourite technique, while others have enjoyed success by becoming extremely well rounded. Within each of the three broad technical systems of arm wrestling there are numerous clearly identifiable techniques which have been developed and enhanced over time. Great Britain's most successful arm wrestler and former two time European and World Middleweight Champion Neil Pickup is one of today's leading arm wrestlers, widely recognized as having originated and developed techniques to suit the genetic make up of individual arm wrestlers. Neil Pickup has enjoyed an amateur and professional career spanning more than 20 years, during which time he has won more than 60 International titles across five different weight classes on both his right and left arms. He has also trained numerous world champions, both male and female. This success has been largely attributed to his technical prowess, experience, and understanding of the athlete's whole body as a lever.
- Common rules
The rules and regulations for arm wrestling are designed to create an even playing field and also prevent broken bones. Below are some of the official arm wrestling regulations:
- The shoulder of both players must be in a square position before the match starts.
- All starts will be a “Ready…Go.” The cadence will vary.
- Players must start with at least one foot on the ground. After the “go” players may have both feet off the ground.
- Left handed play was outlawed in 1975.
- A pin cannot be made if the elbow is out of the pocket.
- To make a winning pin player must touch opponent to the touch pad.
- A false start is a foul.
- Intentional slip-outs are fouls, which occur when both player’s palm completely loses contact with competitor’s palm.
- Players will forfeit the match with a third foul.
- Players may not, at any time, touch their body to their hand.
- The competitors will always conduct themselves in a sportsperson-like manner while at the tournament.
- The most important arm wrestling rule is the referee’s decision is final.
- Associated injury
Arm wrestling puts enormous torque/torsion stress on the upper arm's humerus bone to a degree seen in few other physical activities. Most people's bones are not accustomed to being significantly stressed in this direction, and severe injuries can occur. The arm typically fails because of a diagonal break at or below the midpoint between the shoulder and the elbow; this is known as the 'break arm' position. The most common injury is the humeral shaft fracture. Other common injuries also include shoulder injuries, muscle strain, and less commonly pectoralis major rupture.
- Major Organizations
- Arm Wrestling International (AWI)
- International Federation of Arm Wrestlers (IFAW) - held armwrestling tournaments in conjunction with major International Federation of Body Builders (IFBB) bodybuilding contests, including early editions of the Mr. Olympia
- International Wristwrestling Club (IWC)
- Professional Armwrestling League (PAL)
- Ultimate Armwrestling League (UAL)
- World Armwrestling Federation (WAF)
- World Armsport Federation
- World Armwrestling League (WAL)
- World Professional Armwrestling Association (WPAA)
- World Professional Wristwrestling Association (WPWA)
- World’s Wristwrestling Championship, Inc. (WWC) - first armwrestling organization, organized the first World’s Wristwrestling Championship - it was held in Hermann Sons Hall: the second largest auditorium in Petaluma in 1962; later those (WWC's) World championships were known as Petaluma World’s Wristwrestling Championship 
- Carling O’Keefe World Armwrestling Championship - Fred Salvador first organized in 1971 after Petaluma Worlds Wristwrestling Championships; later referred to as the birth of organized armwrestling in Canada; also known as Timmins Worlds